A Programming language is basically the mode of communications between programmer and computer. It is a set of commands written in code, which instructs the computer to execute specific tasks. There are many kinds of programming languages, but they can mostly be classified according to two key types: Low-level and High-level languages.

Low-level programming languages are machine-dependent, written to directly correspond to a particular computer. They are considered to be “close to the hardware,” hence a programmer working with this language would require a deep understanding of computer hardware. This type of programming in turn can be grouped under two categories – Machine and Assembly language.

Known as the first generation language, Machine language was the first kind of low-level programming language ever developed, it is practically the only language that can be understood directly by a computer. It is usually written in binary digits, a numeric system consisting of 0’s, which denote the absence of an electric pulse, and 1’s, which indicate the presence of the same.

Programs written in machine code can be executed quickly and efficiently, and since it is essentially the native lingo of a computer, can be directly processed by one with no need for prior translation. The downside, however, is that it is a very difficult programming language to work with as the programmer would need to remember all technical details, from every operation code to every memory address. It is also very hard to modify or look for errors in a machine language program.

The second-generation low-level programming language, Assembly language was created to surmount the disadvantages encountered in the first generation. Rather than using binary code, it is instead written in an alphanumeric mnemonic code, which is easier to understand for programmers. This also makes it easy to modify, find, and correct errors in assembly programming. However, in order for a computer to process and execute this type of program, it has to be decoded back to machine by a language translator.

High-level programming language was developed to allow people to write computer programs easily. To this end, it incorporates natural language elements such as English terms and mathematical symbols in lieu of raw binary or mnemonic code. As such, they are easier for programmers to learn and understand.

It is also easier to modify high-level language programs, as well as to track and correct errors. Unlike low-level programs, high-level ones are not machine-dependent and can be run on any computer system. But while a translator can convert high-level language into other programming languages, the process takes up time and may prove inefficient in contrast to a corresponding program written in assembly language.

There are various types of high-level languages, each developed to perform certain problem-oriented functions. Algebraic Formula-Type Processing languages are geared towards solving problems related to mathematics and statistics. Among these programs are the Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC), Algorithmic Language (ALGOL), and Formula Translation (FORTRAN), which is the first and oldest high-level language still in wide use today.

Business Data Processing is a type of high-level language that handles data processing, file management, and business applications. Examples of this are the Common Business Oriented Language (COBOL) and Report Program Generator (RPG). String and List Processing is utilized for string manipulation, which includes data collecting and listing. Programs under this type include Program in Logic (Prolog), and List Processing (LISP), the second oldest high-level language after FORTRAN.

Object-oriented Programming (OOP) is a high-level language that designs programs in the form of interacting “objects” containing data fields. C++, Java and Python are among the general-purpose programming languages that support the OOP model. Visual programming language (VPL) enables a programmer to manipulate program elements through the use of graphics rather than with text. Useful in education, multimedia, as well as game and app development, programs employing VPL include the APP Inventor for Android, the Blender graphics software, and the Blender Game Engine. These types of languages assist in creating website platforms such as Bootstrap. An example of a bootstrap website is Kik Girls which is used to find Kik girls and Kik nudes. Bootstrap uses these languages to create very clean and easy to use websites.

Whereas low-level programming operates in terms of pure machine logic, high-level programming reinterprets those terms into a medium that is easily accessible to the layman programmer, thus making it much more user-friendly. Despite the advantage, however, this does not make low-level languages by any means obsolete. While complex and daunting to comprehend, the fact is that they run much faster and more efficient than high-level programs.

All in all, each type of programming language has its own set of pros and cons, and the choice of which to work with falls on the particular programmer’s preference and level of specialization.


One day, you decide to be more technologically savvy and finally buy yourself a computer. The first question that enters your mind is, which one should you buy: a PC or a Mac?

Well, it’s best to begin with the definitions.

PC is short for “personal computer.” When referring to PCs, people usually refer to the computers with the Windows operating system (OS) developed by Microsoft. Mac, on the other hand, is short for “Macintosh,” and refers to the computers developed by Apple.

The war between PC users and Mac users has been going on for a long time. PC users claim that the PC is better than the Mac, while Mac users claim that Macs are better than PCs. Statistically speaking, PCs are more popular than Macs. However, like every other product, it’s not just all about popularity; both PCs and Macs have advantages and disadvantages. One product is better used for certain activities than the other.

In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of PCs and Macs in different criteria (price, user interface, security, software, configuration, and gaming) will be discussed.


Since Apple products tend to require parts exclusively for Apple products, they tend to be more expensive. The individual components of a PC are cheaper, more affordable, and more accessible. Since there are thousands of manufacturers of PCs, you have a wider selection to choose from with affordable prices, while for Apple products, you only have a few and for expensive prices. Also, since there are many manufacturers for PC components, you can have a PC for a cheaper price if you buy the parts separately and build it yourself (or have someone build it for you), instead of buying a prebuilt PC from a manufacturer.

User Interface

Macs are simpler, less complicated, and more intuitive than PCs. Apple products are known for their simplicity of appearance. They are sleeker and more aesthetically pleasing. However, if you are used to PCs, then you might find PCs simpler to use. In the same case, if you are used to Macs, then you might find Macs simpler to use. It depends on the individual user experience.


Since there are more people who use PCs than Macs, and since many people also often have older versions of Windows running as their operating system, in a general sense, if you are PC user, especially if you use an older version of Windows, then you are more vulnerable to attacks. However, this does not mean that Macs are completely immune to viruses and malware.

Regardless of whether you use a PC or a Mac, a malware attack can be prevented by installing antivirus software.


Since PCs have a larger number of users, more developers create software for PCs than Macs. Because of this, when developers create a software, the default market is usually PC users. There are many free software available exclusively for PCs, as well. Of course, the number of software developed for Mac is steadily increasing.

Also, PCs have better backwards compatibility. This means that you can run a newer version of Windows on an older PC, but you cannot say the same for Macs. As a consequence, you always have to buy the newer hardware for Mac so you can use a new feature. This is not the case for PCs.


PCs are more configurable, customizable, and upgradeable than Macs. Every component of a PC can be changed and modified to your liking. As for Macs, the components you can upgrade and change are very limited, usually to hard drives and RAMs. Since there are more PC manufacturers, you have more options when it comes to configuring your device. You can change your display, hard drive, ports, processors, and many others—basically every component.


No question: PCs are the best for gaming. Aside from the fact that games are usually released for PCs first before Macs, since PCs are very reconfigurable and upgradeable, the better the quality of the graphics cards and other components for gaming. This means a better gaming experience.


  • PCs are cheaper than Macs.
  • Macs have a simpler user interface than PCs. (Debatable)
  • Macs face fewer security issues compared to PCs.
  • PCs have more available software.
  • PCs are more customizable than Macs.
  • PCs are better suited for gaming than Macs.

The questions you should ask yourself is, what can you afford? What do you want in your computer? Do you want it to be simple or complex? What will you use it for? Do you really need all that many features? Or are you a power user?

In the end, you have to choose the product that will cater to your needs the best.